TP-LINK XDR5480 disassembly, why no 1G bottleneck?

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The XDR5480 is an AX5400 dual-band WIFI6 wireless router that is part of the new TP-LINK product with a 2.5G port. the XDR5480 is now available for $90, is it worth it? The following is a teardown and some simple tests to tell you about it.

XDR5480’s appearance.


Power output specifications: 12V/2.5A, wow 2.5A ah, the power is very adequate. The router plugged into the Internet cable measured standby power 7.9W, plugged into the 2.5G photoelectric conversion module standby power 9.6W.

The middle of the fuselage is metal aluminum, and the fuselage has heat sink holes on both sides.XDR5480拆机

A 2.5G optical port, 4 Gigabit network ports, support blind plugging, also support custom WAN port. So the 2.5G optical port can be used as a WAN port or LAN port.XDR5480拆机

There is a discount for pre-sales with the 2.5G optical conversion module, which I think is very affordable, and it would be nice if there was always such a discount. If you do not need to use the 2.5G network port, of course, do not have to spend this extra money.


After inserting this photoelectric conversion module, you can directly hold the network cable to use the optical port into the electrical port, the highest rate of 2.5Gbps. plug into the network cable to use, the shell of this template will be a little hot, you can imagine the heat of the USB network card.XDR5480拆机

Before dialing out the module, open this gold latch, otherwise the module will not be dialed out:.


Information on the bottom of the fuselage. Model: TL-XDR5480 Easy Show Turbo Edition.XDR5480拆机

XDR5480 product details page and the contents of the outer box, are written dual-band can support 41 OFDMA users, from this attribute can be guessed 5G wireless chip model is likely QCN9074, which is a complete wireless chip, does not require CPU support, can work independently, so QCN9074 can also be made into a wireless network card. Unfortunately, Qualcomm has not yet come out WIN driver, it is estimated that it will not come out, router chips are short, it will not be used to produce wireless cards.


QCN9074 supports 512 wireless band capacity and 37 OFDMA users, unlike the QCN5054, which requires a more powerful CPU to support, and at a price of more than $90, there will not be much stronger CPU, according to the configuration of Xiaomi AX6000 and H3C BX54, the CPU can use IPQ5018. However, the Ethernet interface of IPQ5018 has only one 2.5G SGMII+ and one 1G PHY interface. If you let a 2.5G port occupy it, then the total bandwidth from CPU to each LAN port is only 1Gbps. For more details, see this article.

Practical test of Xiaomi AX6000’s 2.5GbE network port is a problem

Xiaomi AX6000 and H3C BX54 both trash this problem, but this 1G bottleneck will not affect the use of gigabit broadband. No need to worry much!

If the XDR5480 is really using Qualcomm IPQ5018, this 1G bottleneck is also very likely to exist, so before dismantling the machine I first carried out some simple but complex and time-consuming tests on it, one can know some interface data in advance, the second fear of dismantling the machine in case of damage to the machine that will be 67!

1, the XDR5480 2.5G port to all LAN port bandwidth is 1Gbps?

The following is the total speed from the 2.5G network port to the three LAN ports (the fourth gigabit port as the WAN port)

The NIC connected to the 2.5G optical adapter module is Intel X550-T2, and the NIC connected to the three LAN ports is Intel I350-T4. The connected devices are shown below.


Using the IxChariot software for hitstream testing (TCP), the total speed of the 2.5G to 3 LAN ports is as follows.

2.5G to lan1+lan2+lan3

Three Gigabit LAN ports, each receiving an average speed of 720Mbps, for a total bandwidth of, I’ll press the calculator first. . 2170Mbps!!!

Surprisingly there is no 1G bottleneck ???? And break through the 2Gbps bandwidth. After more than retesting, the results are more than 2Gbps.

What happens if there are only 2 LANs transmitting at the same time?


The two LAN ports total 1545Mbps, which also exceeds 1Gbps, but does not reach 1800Mbps, which is a bit strange speed.

When a single LAN port, it is certainly no problem, reaching more than 950Mbps.


2.5G LAN port to each Gigabit LAN port speed summary table: (Mbps)



If the 2.5G port is used as the WAN port, what kind of speed will the other 4 LAN ports have? The test method platform used minismb, just the packet size to the maximum 1518byte (UDP), at this time, the maximum bandwidth can be measured.

However, I found that when 2.5G WAN to two LAN ports, the bandwidth can reach 2Gbps, as follows.

2.5G WAN 1518byte lan x2

Look at line 7, “RX Kbps” after the Console1 (LAN1) and console2 (LAN 2), two LAN ports have reached 1Gbps. that is strange, the front as a LAN port, 2.5G to 2 LAN of only 1.5G more.

All LAN port combinations are as follows.



2, is the bandwidth of all LAN ports of XDR5480 to CPU 1Gbps?

Since there is no 1G bottleneck between the 2.5G CFP and the LAN port, could it be that the SGMII+ interface is occupied? Then the bandwidth from the LAN port to the CPU is only 1Gbps?

I350-T4 connected to the three network ports of XDR5480, while to the Xiaomi 11 cell phone connected with 5G (CPU and wireless chip connected with PCIe), the results are as follows.

lan1+lan2+lanl3 to 5G 小米11

The total speed is 1873Mbps, also there is no 1G bottleneck.

3, XDR5480’s 2.5G port to CPU bandwidth is 1Gbps?

Use one XDR6060 wireless bridge to XDR5480’s 5G, two 2.5G LAN ports are connected to two computers, the results of the sparring.

2.5G to mesh 2.5G

The result is 2214Mbps, which is more than 2Gbps, and no 1Gbps.

What exactly is the construction of this XDR5480? Is the CPU not IPQ5018?

With doubts to disassemble the machine, more anxious plus a lot of clips in the shell, very tight, it took 20 minutes to disassemble the shell, but still some damage.


Fortunately, it did not hurt the net mouthXDR5480拆机

Heatsink is longer than the motherboard, the first time to see:XDR5480拆机

I thought the piece of aluminum metal on the top beast would help dissipate heat, but there is no point of contact, no contact with the hot parts, and underneath is a plastic case: the


The antenna is all soldered on the motherboard, the benefit is to reduce signal errors, the disadvantage is not convenient for me to remove:XDR5480拆机

3 x 16V 470uF, 1 x 10V 470uF capacitors.


There are 2 screws on the motherboard, after taking out and turning over to see the back of the motherboard.XDR5480拆机

The back also has a long heatsink, and a shield, which I guess is empty. After removing the heatsink and shield.


There is a piece of thermal grease spacer under the heat sink to help conduct heat to the chips on the motherboard. The back of the motherboard is not really clean anymore, there are 2 power supply circuits, respectively for the 5G chip and CPU power.

Back to the front of the motherboard, directly remove the heatsink:.


Heat sink has weight:XDR5480拆机

Quickly, pry open all the shields, three shields have a piece of silicon pad silicon pad below.XDR5480拆机

The largest shield under a piece of dark gray “RFID material UHF EMI microwave electromagnetic shielding anti-interference material”.XDR5480拆机

Xiaomi AX6000 and H3C BX54 do not use this material.

5G wireless chip is really QCN9074 now, the first time I saw it on TP. I am the second time to see, the first time is on top of H3C BX54.


The QCN9074 supports 4x4mimo, with a maximum rate of 4804Mbps at 160MHz bandwidth, and 2882Mbps at 2x2mimo because it supports 4096-QAM, which is the only phone I have that can support this rate. This wireless chip has an absolute advantage if more than 30 people are playing handheld games at the same time.

The CPU model number is blocked by a metal plate, which is the same design on XDR5430 v2.


My eyes were filled with curiosity and I cut the metal stopper directly out of the frame: theXDR5480拆机

I do not know what the consequences will be ah, I just want to clearly show you the chip model. The silkscreen on it is IPQ0518, the same as XDR5430v2.


And I can see from the TTL startup letter of the XDR5480 that there is the field IPQ5018:

IPQ5018 01

IPQ5018, dual-core A53 1GHz, integrated single-core 12-thread NPU, but also integrated 2.4G wireless, support 2x2mimo, the highest rate of 574Mbps.

IPQ5018 does not integrate memory, can expand memory, support eMMC, neutered a little, not expandable memory, and 256MB memory integrated into it, also remove EMMC, it becomes IPQ5010, and then remove a PCIe and USB3.0, and subtract Bluetooth and audio features, it becomes IPQ5000.

IPQ5018 is suitable for router or master node, IPQ5010 and IPQ5000 are suitable for sub-node, so we haven’t seen IPQ5010 and IPQ5000 on the router yet, but we may see them in future mesh products.

This IPQ0518 may be a custom model requested by TP to Qualcomm, adding a special serdes to meet the full range of new products can provide 2.5G SFP port and with all LAN ports can break the 1Gbps bottleneck. I YA’s!

Tentatively, let’s call it IPQ5018.

There is a memory chip next to the CPU, model M15T2G16128A, with a capacity of 256MB. QCN9074 with 256MB of memory, TP really good ah.


Why should the ceramic heatsink above the CPU be blocked by half of a metal plate and the other half is not in contact with the CPU, why this design?


A partial view of the SFP optical port and the switch chip. I don’t see a line connection between the two.


The SFP is empty inside and does not have a chip, only an interface.XDR5480拆机

Circuits around the SFP.XDR5480拆机


The switch chip is silkscreened with RTL8367SC, the model number is estimated to be RTL8367S-CG, which supports link aggregation. Support dual WAN aggregation, that is, 2 broadband access at the same time, also supports LAN port aggregation. Now these features I now in the routing settings and did not find, it is estimated to wait for the next firmware update to support.


There is a small chip like this near the switch chip, I wonder what it is for?” h2 0122 103″


Well, the CPU, 5G chip, switch these chips are clear, now focus on the amplifier chip.

5G FEM chip model QPF4588, Xiaomi AX3600, Xiaomi AX6000, Xiaomi AX9000 these three models are also used QPF4588. XDR5430v2 with QPF4506.


The parameters of QPF4588 are as follows.

5150 – 5925 MHz
POUT = +16dBm MCS11 HE80 -47dB Dynamic EVM
POUT = +18dBm MCS11 HE80 -43dB Dynamic EVM
POUT = +23dBm MCS9 VHT80 -35dB Dynamic EVM
POUT = +24dBm MCS7 HT20/40 -30dB Dynamic EVM
POUT = +26dBm MCS0 HT20 Spectral Mask Compliance
Optimized for +5 V Operation
33 dB Tx Gain
2 dB Noise Figure
16 dB Rx Gain & 7 dB Bypass Loss
30 dB 2.4 GHz Rejection on Rx Path


XDR5430v1 and v2 both use QPF4506, I put the two parameters together, to highlight the key points, it is convenient to give you a comparison: theQPF4588 QPF4506

First of all, why the XDR5480 5G FEM why not use QPF4506? Because the 5G chip QCN9074 support 4096-QAM, QPF4506 EVM can not meet the 4096-QAM use, you can see QPF4588 more lines of parameters “POUT = + 16dBm MCS11 HE80 -47dB Dynamic EVM”, XDR5430v2 5G chip is QCN6024, does not support 4096-QAM, so you can use QPF4506. 16dBm MCS11 HE80 -47dB Dynamic EVM”, the XDR5430v2 5G chip is QCN6024, does not support 4096-QAM, so you can use QPF4506.

Just look at the FEM package size will know that the QPF4588 is significantly stronger, larger volume can be put into a larger larger PA die.

In addition to the PA is stronger, LNA is also stronger.

These are only from the surface parameters to illustrate, everything to the actual test shall prevail, especially the quality of wireless.

2.4G FEM chip is QPF4288. xiaomi AX3600, xiaomi AX6000, xiaomi AX9000 these three wireless routers 2.4G FEM is also QPF4288.


The parameters of QPF4288 are as follows.

2400-2500 MHz
POUT = +17 dBm HE40 -47dB Dynamic EVM
POUT = +22 dBm HE40 -43dB Dynamic EVM
POUT = +24.5 dBm MCS9 HT40 -35dB Dynamic EVM
POUT = +26 dBm MCS7 HT20/40 -30dB Dynamic EVM
POUT = +28 dBm MCS0 HT20 Spectral Mask Compliance
Optimized for +5 V Operation
33 dB Tx Gain
1.7 dB Noise Figure
15.5 dB Rx Gain & 7 dB Bypass Loss
>10dB 5 GHz Rejection on Rx Path
Integrated RF Power Detector Coupler as well as DC Power Detector


XDR5480’s 2.4G and 5G amplifier chips are both high power models.

The flash memory model is MT25QU128 with 16MB capacity.


At this point, the XDR5480 is disassembled.XDR5480拆机

The summary chart of each chip model is as follows.XDR5480拆机

It seems that this XDR5480 is specifically for Xiaomi AX6000 competitive models. In that case, I listed the XDR5430v2 and Xiaomi 2 models together, adding a small packet forwarding rate comparison, which is not meaningful for everyday use, just look at it, unless it really is not even 0.2Mpps.

Click to view larger image.


The silkscreen on the CPU chip is IPQ0518, to be cautious, the model number is still called IPQ0518 better, easy to identify, a glance will know that this is used in TP-LINK. Qualcomm likes to neuter a little bit of parameters and then sell you a little cheaper, as I mentioned earlier with the IPQ5010 and IPQ5000 chips.

Since there is no 1G bottleneck, the 1G PHY interface in the CPU can also be left out, and the price is cheaper after subtracting it.

RTL8367SC may be the new switch chip, adding a special interface to connect with the SFP, otherwise those speed test results in front, I can not figure out.

Take Xiaomi 4C, Xiaomi 10, Xiaomi 11 in the downstairs D point location speed test to see. Broadband 300 megabytes, the results are as follows.


The speed measurement result is slightly worse than BX54 (5G chip is also QCN9074), but the result is already very good. wifi5 downstairs, but also close to 300 megabytes, Xiaomi 10 80 bandwidth is almost full 300 megabytes of broadband, Xiaomi 11 in the addition of 160 bandwidth, across a floor can also run full 300 megabytes of broadband. QPF4588 than SKY85747 -11 ah?


Look at the XDR5480 case will know, the motherboard is large, conducive to heat dissipation, the top body also has cooling holes also conducive to heat dissipation, do not have to worry about it as hot as XDR5430v2. I think to come out with a 2.5G photoelectric conversion mode kit, the kit price is set at 590 yuan on the good.

XDR5480 than Xiaomi AX6000 has three advantages, one is the QCN9074 in wireless band capacity has an advantage; second is no 1G bottleneck between the switch to the CPU; third is to support dual WAN and link road aggregation (waiting for firmware updates), I do not know if Xiaomi AX6000 can support dual WAN later.

Disadvantages, does not support AP mode networking, but can be used as AP, memory appears to be a little small only 256MB, even if your technology is powerful to make QCN9074 work on 256MB memory, but also for consumers to consider the feelings of ah, more than 500 only 256MB memory. Unless the memory chip I saw the wrong capacity.

Wireless signal strength in my expectations, very strong, only a little worse than the BX54, this is only a preliminary test, the specific or to see the speed of different phones in different locations, here for reference only, this is a teardown article is not a detailed review.

It is worth buying, depending on the specific needs and budget. If you have this budget, you want a stronger signal and have a 2.5G port (just need or spare), $90 is OK.

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